|No||Judul Penelitian||Peneliti||Ringkasan Proposal|
|1.||Manajemen Asset Kampung-Kota||
|Di kota-kota besar dan metropolitan di Indonesia, kampung kota merupakan salah satu fenomena solusi bermukim bagi masyarakat berpendapatan rendah (MBR). Kampung kota didefinisikan sebagai kelompok perumahan yang merupakan bagian kota yang mempunyai kepadatan penduduk yang tinggi, dibangun secara informal, sarana dan prasarana di bawah standar, kualitas lingkungan rendah, dan cenderung semakin padat. Kawasan kampung-kota sering menjadi pilihan utama bagi MBR untuk menetap secara permanen maupun sementara di perkotaan. Sebagai perumahan yang dikembangkan secara informal/swadaya, sebagian kampung-kota mengalami penurunan kualitas fungsi sebagai tempat hunian bahkan cenderung menjadi tidak layak huni karena ketidakteraturan bangunan, tingkat kepadatan bangunan yang tinggi, dan kualitas bangunan serta sarana dan prasarana perumahan yang tidak memenuhi syarat.
Pesatnya penguasaan lahan secara besar-besaran di kawasan perkotaan oleh para pengembang (developer) akhir-akhir ini untuk pembangunan berbagai jenis properti bagi masyarakat berpenghasilan menengah dan tinggi dapat berpengaruh negatif terhadap kampung-kota. Kampung-kota di lokasi strategis yang terkepung oleh lahan pengembang cepat atau lambat akan menjadi incaran pengembang selanjutnya untuk dikuasai. Penguasaan lahan skala besar tersebut lama kelamaan akan mendesak dan menggusur kawasan kampung-kota dan berubah menjadi kawasan perumahan kelas menengah ke atas. Hilangnya kawasan kampung-kota akan menyebabkan hilangnya lokasi bermukim yang strategis bagi MBR di tengah kota.
Sejalan dengan konsep no one left behind dan city for all dalam New Urban Agenda yang dinyatakan dalam UN Habitat III, kawasan kampung-kota di kota besar dan metropolitan yang merupakan tempat bermukim MBR perlu dilindungi keberadaannya. Penerapan konsep pengembangan kota saat ini yang lebih mengutamakan kesetaraan mendorong perlunya perlindungan terhadap keberadaan kawasan kampung-kota. Perlindungan keberadaan kampung-kota sangat dipengaruhi oleh karakteristik kawasan kampung-kota, terutama kepemilikan aset lahan dan bangunan. Aset lahan dan bangunan yang berada di kawasan kampung-kota mempunyai karakter khusus yang meliputi sejarah perkembangannya, lokasinya, kepemilikannya (publlik atau privat), status huniannya (legal atai ilegal), serta kesesuaiannya dengan rencana (sesuai atau tidak sesuai). Untuk dapat melindungi keberadaan kawasan kampung-kota, perlu dipahami karakter kawasan kampung-kota sebagai dasar untuk perumusan pendekatan dan konsep perlindungan dan pengembangan kampung-kota.
|2.||Development of Smart City Concepts and Indicators in Indonesi||
||In this global era, the presence of ICT cannot be avoided, even has been present everyday around the community because of the ease of access and widely used by the community. It is also characterized by the use of gadgets that cannot be separated and become a lifestyle, although its functionality cannot be used maximally, just to improve communication. Internationally, the concept of smart city (SC) was born in the framework of realizing the Kyoto Protocol’s goal of committing to reduce internationally binding emissions. Then, the concept of smart city is widely used, supported and adopted by many institutions such as the European Commission, Setis-EU, OECD, etc. Not only that, the number of publications and research related to the topic has also increased greatly (Jucevičius et al., 2014; Cocchia, 2014). SC is also often associated with other factors as a supporter of the concept of SC such as smart governance, smart people (intelligence community in terms of education and discipline), smart living (improve the quality of life more secure and comfortable ), smart economy (enhancing the spirit of innovation, entrepreneurship, productivity, labor market flexibility, and transforming capabilities), smart mobility (enhanced accessibility, availability of infrastructure and ICT, sustainable, innovative and secure, improved transport systems), and smart environments (improving environmental quality, reducing pollution, attraction to natural conditions, and sustainable resource management) (Giffinger and Gudrun, 2010). Although the term of SC has been widely used, the definition of SC is still in flaw, there is no agreement yet. SC can be seen as a tool, or as enabler.
Against that background this research aimed at exploring the definition of smart city in relation with the essence the public service function of a city. In doing so the research was looking at two focuses of inquiries:
First is the extent of which participatory governance, as required for a good city governance in delivery services can be accommodated by SC concept; it examined the effectiveness of the utilization of ICT in the implementation of participatory governance through the concept of smart community, and to redefine what factors the government needs in order to face the current era of globalization and digital in the context of increasing community participation in urban development process.
Second, is the index that can be utilized to measure the smartness of a city. It developed a formula that can shows an index picturing the relation between factors that may influence a smartness level of a city.
|3.||Utilizing Geographical Information System (GIS) in Defininng Kampung Kota Characteristics in Bandung City||
||Slums and squatter has been issues of housing in Indonesia. Cities are not merely consisted of slum area but also planned residential area, trading and services centers, offices, and other tertiary sectors. However, the particular social values and the dynamics of local neighborhoods have contributed in generating kampung kota. This term refers to a specific neighborhood which at some extent has unique social values amidst the heterogeneity of urban dwellers. The definition is not settled though, as there is not suitable word in English; several kampungkota are built upon legal property and some are not considered slums (Obermayr, 2017). This condition is exacerbated as legal framework in Indonesia only recognized the management of slums (permukiman kumuh). The continuing struggles in constituting the definition of kampungkota motivates further studies to gather evidentiary supports thoroughly in order to better grasp what the term actually is. Hence, this study aims to investigate the characteristics of kampungkota as the common issue in Indonesian cities. Quantitative methods are employed in this study, in which analyses are done using GIS. Taking case in Bandung as both the third most inhabited cities with population around 2.5 million citizens and the second highest population living in slum (Tarigan et al, 2015), this study should suggest more suitable definition of kampungkota. In bigger picture, this study should encourage the studies in informal urbanism, which is sometimes having less quantitative data. Also, this study should identify basic model of how kampungkota will manifest in urban perspective of Indonesia.
The samples for this study are 151 villages (kelurahan) in Bandung City. Ordinary Least Squares, Geographically Weighted Regression, and Spatial Cluster and Outlier Analysis are employed. It is suggested that kampungkota may have distinguished variables regarding to its location. As kampungkota may be smaller than administrative area of kelurahan, it can develop beyond the jurisdiction of kelurahan, as indicated by the clustering pattern of kampungkota. Keywords: kampongkota, informal urbanism, housing system, Indonesia.
|4.||The Study of Urban Agriculture Development in Kampung Kota||
||The World Bank (2000) estimated that approximately 50% of the poor live in urban area, while there were only 25% in 1988. Most cities in developing countries have great difficulties to cope with this development and are unable to provide services to the poor (Armar-Klemesu, 2000). Food security has always been a key facet for people living in cities. However, supplying food in the urban areas may have obstacles in production and distribution that leads to unaffordability for the urban poor. Bandung is the largest city in West Java. Since 1985, Bandung went through a huge population growth which causes urban sprawl in the nearby areas. The city growth could not be maintained and affecting misusing of vacant land and green spaces due to providing housing and public facilities. The misusing of urban leads to degrading environment quality. That problem can be seen in several neighborhood areas such as Tamansari, Padjajaran, Cicadas, Dago Pojok, and so on. Most of the inhabitants in those areas are relatively poor. There was once an urban agriculture (UA) operated in those areas, but it was unsuccessful. One of the factors that lead to the urban farming failure was the lack of open space, especially in the slum area where most of the inhabitants badly needed. In an attempt to resolve food provision problem, establishing UA could be one of the solutions to provide food. In 2011, Major of Bandung issued the regulation number 376, this regulation state of food diversities. Following 3-year, Ridwan Kamil, latest major of Bandung, planned new concept of urban agriculture development. That concept named “Kampong Farming”, the main goal of this development is to apply major regulation in 2011.
Kampong Farming is a concept to develop urban agriculture in Bandung, Kampong defines as neighborhood unit in a place of city or terminology of Kampong mean village. Kampong Farming is planned to develop in the whole of Bandung city, this development in neighborhood unit. This concept also has a goal of the community development where the main subject to conduct Kampong farming is local communities and local government as the facilitator, offering several actions such as an activity to improve capacity building for local communities increase the understanding of urban agriculture and give several financial aids. In order to cultivate UA, the community decided what is the food commodity that they will be cultivated at each Kampong farming. Most of the food commodities associated with vegetables, spices, and fruits.
|5.||Development of Communicative City Study Toward Smart City||
||The concept of communicative city focuses on the pattern of communication between individuals as members of society in an urban area. The relationship symbolizes a pattern of interconnection between individuals in the context of a city with a communication phenomenon so that planners and city managers understand the characteristics and impacts of their activities that are represented by communication between individuals, communities, and city performance (Jeffres, 2010). In essence, the communicative city seeks to develop the concept of innovation in the participation of urban development as an effort in the planning process in order to represent the voice of all parties. The challenge of planners is how to implement pragmatic realistic participatory planning, not ideal participatory planning (Forester, 1999), especially when associated with technological developments (information and communication).
In this era of reform, the development of technology and information has changed the way people receive and disseminate information and communicate using digital communications (City Council Ad Hoc Santa Cruz, 2011). It also undoubtedly changed the government’s efforts in providing access to public information, shifting from traditional channels of communication to internet-based and wireless interactive communications (Pearson, in Indriyani 2016). One form of communication line shift is seen from the official website provided by the Government. The existence of this official website can also be one of the assessment in conducting communication audit (Jeffres, 2010). Based on research on “Analysis of Official Website Utilization by Regency / City Government in Accommodating Public Participation on Spatial Planning” by Indriyani (2016), it is known that Bandung is a metropolitan city which has good and complete information availability. However, this is not followed by the full use of official website functions by the community. This shows that the city that has the availability of complete information may not necessarily encourage community participation in spatial planning (Indriyani, 2016).
The motivation of this research is to study the communication system in urban areas, where the government has a set of development policies which in this digital era have been socialized through the support of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the form of official website. On the other hand, people do not know about it, furthermore, the public has not felt the benefits of the existence of the official website. Yet with the support of ICT, it is hoped that the public can participate more in the city development towards a sustainable and just city.
In national document “PP 68/2010” mentioned that some form of community participation in spatial arrangement can be done through electronic communication media. In his research entitled “Analysis of Remsi Website Utilization by Regency / City Government in Accommodating Community Participation in Spatial Planning”, Indriyani (2016) stated that the form of community participation in the planning, utilization and control of spatial utilization can be done 63%, 33% and 100% sequentially, through social media features, link share, and apps on the official website. But this is not accompanied by the high e-particapation (phase of active participation) of the community. Seen from the absence of active participatory stage on the official website of Bandung.
The purpose of this research is to examine the tendency of communication role in urban development, so it can generate suggestion / recommendation related to improvement of role of communication system in town planning. From the improvement of the role of communication system, it is expected that the level of public participation on spatial planning can also increase. Therefore, the objective of this research is to identify the requirements needed for communication channel of Bandung City to run conductively and to analyze the extent of utilization level of Bandung City official website in town planning.
When interpreted from the concept of smart cities (Albino, et al, 2015: 1466-1853), this communicative city has at least two important points from several sides of the definition of smart city: First, it relates to the creation of innovations in the development of communication channels for regional planning . This is an elaboration of the concept of smart city in terms of governance; Second, it deals with exploring the role of citizens in the digital era. This is an elaboration of the concept of smart city from the dimension of society in the new era of urbanism, which encourages the development of science as an effort to create a quality environment from the bottom up side, and later useful in improving the spirit to participate actively in supporting growth more intelligently (effectively, efficiently, according to the answer to the problem).
In accordance with the output target of this research, the proposed methodology is more in the form of literature review related to communicative city in urban planning area, of course with maturation through interview process or focus group discussion. The selection of this research gap is inseparable from the roadmap of KK-PPK research (Urban Planning and Design) which provides research gaps for the development of tools or tools in creating sustainable and equitable cities. The series of proposed processes (see also chart below) include:
The output of this study analyzes and generates about the views of various planners related to the development of smart cities, both in various aspects and forms. These views are contained in various forms of books and journals that examine more deeply about various aspects, both directly related to communicative city development, development and concept of smart cities, as well as innovation in the development of the city itself.
This research can be a start in developing the views from various viewpoints of planners in the face of the dynamics of changes that occur in urban development, especially by adopting the concept of technology and ICT, as well as the adoption of an innovation in urban development which can not be avoided as a new form of development in the 21st century era.
|6.||Evaluating the Riverbank Squatter Housing Community Relocation Program (Case Study: Rawa Bebek Flats Residents – DKI Jakarta)||
||In Indonesia, squatter housing are a common issue to be found, notably along the Ciliwung Riverbank of Jakarta Capital Region which is highly susceptible to a great deal of health issues and also a serious disaster risk. To solve this, a squatter upgrading plan was needed, and the Jakarta Capital Region Government provides one via an urban resettlement project that resulted in development of 23 public rent apartments to accommodate the people and communities affected by the program. The goals of this project are not only to give the low-income community a better living environment, but also to develop their economic and social capacity and improve their ability to pursue a better living and ultimately, to be able to own their own houses. This journal aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and to measure whether the results and impacts match the initial goals by identifying the efforts taken via social counselling program that has been held at the site and how it’s corresponding with the main goals of the housing project.
The research is conducted using descriptive methods through a hoped two-year long observations. First year goals are to identify the legal process and the actual practice of Rawa Bebek resettlement, and also to learn the perceived impression, benefits, and challenges from the actors’ standpoint (government, operator, and residents) to make an operational evaluation about the program. Visual observations are also used to evaluate physical environment improvement made in the resettlement sites, the current living environment, and also social interactions inside. The second year goals are to observe how the resettlement affects the residents’ sustainable livelihood assets (Natural, Human, Economic, Physical, and Social capital) to make an impact evaluation about the program and assess whether it’s a success and what improvements that needs to be made for the program.
The resettlement program involves several stakeholders the each had their own authority and responsibility. The main entities that directly involved are the Governor, Department of Housing and Local Government Buildings (Dinas Perumahan dan Gedung Pemerintah Daerah), and the Rumah Susun Management Unit (Unit Pengelola Rumah Susun). According to the provincial resettlement bill, the communities targeted by the program are divided into programmed and non-programmed communities. Programmed communities are the residential communities affected by a public development programs, natural disasters, urban land control, and/or other similar conditions; Non-programmed/common communities are the low-income communities that met the pre-requisite conditions.
|7.||The Study of Attachment between Distribution Pattern of Land Prices and Apartment Prices (Case Study: Vertical Housing Development in Administration City of South Jakarta)||
||Land and it’s utilization on housing development undoubted have become an essential issue in various studies, including lot of subjects in real estate. The comprehension on each locations of the case has allowed several important studies of particular patterns related to the capacity of local land market and local housing market, especially on the case of DKI Jakarta as the most promising area for property business; Jakarta also has the highest lands and apartments price in Indonesia.
Land and apartment, in general understanding, are considered as the most unique commodities and highly profitable in the urban development pattern of Jakarta. But since 2014, there has been lots of warnings about possibility of apartments oversupply in Jakarta. Stagnation of apartment sales also has been indicated in locations at the edge of this city, which will enable the demand’s transition from apartment, as form of vertical housing, to landed houses, and there is a possibility that this stagnation will influence the sales of apartments in Jakarta.
The diagram above explains the fundemental theories that are being used for this research. Based on fundamental theories of land and apartment pricing, the research presumes that apartment development is considered as an effort of land intensifications, also to trigger the enhancement of land prices in particular locations. Therefore, this research means to comprehend the correlation of distribution pattern of lands price with distribution pattern of apartment price, specifically in the administration city of South Jakarta.
The data collecting method that will be conducted in this study is by interviews with reference, primary observations, and studies of related literature (Vanderstoep and Johnston 2009). Considering the topic or issue about development of land prices and apartment prices in part of Jakarta, it is not only related to the market condition, which is commonly being researched by the private sector such as land and property developers, but also Rusunami and Rusunawa that have been mentioned before as part of them.
This research will be done strictly within Jakarta, it will be done periodically from year to year and viewing the progress each year. The time scope of research has to be precise in as far as the data collecting method may able to retrieve. Considering the present time of this research is being conducted is the mid of 2017 (before the end of third quarter), the oldest data that has been collected through networks, mostly by secondary survey, is from 2009; then we have approximately 8 years of time range of data.
There are difference both in terms, functions and specifications, between Apartment with Rusunami and Rusunawa, form of vertical housing development in Indonesia, especially the city of Jakarta. While apartments is considered to be marketed through the market mechanism with their general market target, Rusunami and Rusunawa basically should be aimed through government regulations for specific target within the population.
In reality, the amount of planned form of residential for general market such as Apartment is several times higher than the development or planned supply of Rusunami and Rusunawa. The similar situation also occurred to future condition as the increasing rate of demand for affordable Rumah Susun is still rising.
However, it gets worse because there are proven violations of Rusunami and Rusunawa’s marketing through market mechanism with increasing price by some perpetrators that ruins the system. The Government failed to fulfill the urgent and primary needs of those specific population because there are lack of control and monitoring for the related issues.
There is an attachment in positive orientation and similar direction between distribution patterns of land prices with the distribution patterns of apartment prices in urban area which has been the study case.
These kinds of conditions in rapid-developing urban area with high density and various aspects of discrepancy tend to fail the aim and plan to create a sustainable city, in this case from perspective of public housing as part of residential sector development. A monitoring act and development control through this research of distribution pattern and mapping technology are essential as the process to achieve the sustainable and maintain ideal condition.
|8.||Kampung Oriented Development: A Strategy Towards Inclusive and Sustainable City (Case Study: Bandung City)||Dr. Ir. Iwan Kustiwan, MT.||In the context of urban development in Indonesia, the housing area as the largest type of land use is dominated by informal housing (or self-help housing). The residential area is often referred to as kampung kota (urban village / urban kampong). Kampung kota is defined as group of housing area with high population density, built informally, lack of facilities and infrastructur. Kampung kota is one of alternative residence for the low-income community in urban areas. As an informal housing, kampung kota often viewed from the characteristics of residential, infrastructure, location, and legality of land ownership, mostly categorized as slum areas, as the object of urban renewal (rejuvenation) by housing quality improvement. Meanwhile, new formal housing areas tend to be built towards the periphery, causing various problems, such as the conversion of agricultural land and green open spaces, dependence on motor vehicles, traffic congestion along with the impact of its accompanying environment. These new residential areas on the further outskirts of the city (known as urban sprawl) increasingly out of control.
According to Sustainable Development Goal’s (SDG’s 2030) objectives, with regard to cities and settlements explicitly stated the objectives of achieving safe, resilient, inclusive and sustainable cities and settlements (Goal-11). In this context, kampung kota areas which dominated urban housing (or urban land use) and encompassing most low-income communities need attention from the government. Urban planning and urban development should involve all community groups, so that the developed housing area is for all (inclusive; city for all) and sustainable economically, socially, and environmentally. To meet the needs of the rapidly growing population of large cities and metropolitan areas in Indonesia, the development of residential areas, especially for the poor (or MBR), is now more oriented towards formal housing development which tends to be done in the outlying suburbs of the city center with the greenfield development pattern impacts on the conversion of agricultural land and the longer the daily journey of urban dwellers. Whereas the existence of the dominant and long-standing kampong city can not be ignored its contribution in meeting the housing needs for MBR. In the context of rapid urban dynamics, urban sustainability, especially in the center / city as a residential area, is becoming increasingly threatened with the replacement of non-housing functions that are economically more profitable. Problems that arises here (in Indonesia) is that there is no formal advocacy towards urban housing development which includes kampong areas and its physical, environmental, social and economical aspects.
The aim of this research is to develop strategies toward kampung-oriented development to realize an inclusive and sustainable city. The objectives are: (1) Identified urban spatial characteristics and characteristics as spatial entities of informal urban housing areas development; (2)Identified practical or the implementation of environmental quality improvement program of urban housing; (3) Identified generic concepts, strategies and programs in the regeneration / rejuvenation of urban housing areas towards inclusive and sustainable city and (4) Formulating urban development strategies based on ‘kampung Oriented development towards inclusive and sustainable city. Research that will be conducted is applied research that is descriptive-explanatory. The approach used is quantitative method. The study area used as a case study is the city of Bandung, as a colonial city whose development cannot be separated organically from a long history originated from the village which then resides in a newly region that formally developed.
This study opens up new knowledge of Kampung-kota phenomenon as a spatial or informal housing entity whose existence color the dynamics of the development of big cities or metropolitan cities in Indonesia. At the institutional level, the results of this study will enrich and contribute to developing lecture materials including ‘Housing System’, ‘Urban Planning’, and ‘Land and Housing Development’. The results of this study are also of further benefit in the development of spatial plans as well as the realization of viable, productive and sustainable urban settlements.