International Workshop on Sustainable Urban Transportation in Developing Countries

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Bandung, June 24, 2014 held at the Multipurpose Building Labtek IX-A sixth floor, Dean of the School of Architecture, Planning, and Development Policy (SAPPD) Prof. B. Kombaitan opening the International Workshop on Sustainable Urban Transportation in Developing Countries. Theme : Issues, Problems, and Solutions for the Future of Urban Mobility and Accessibility in the Cities of Indonesia.

INTRODUCTION
Cities are the engine of growth for Indonesia’s social and economic development and the center for art, cuture, industries and population. Urban transport is considered the basis and prerequisite for urban development, and crucial social facility for urban production and people’s living, and a basic infrastructure for urban investment and living environment. It is pointed out in Indonesia very recent Masterplan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia’s Economic Development (MP3EI) 2011-2031, that the urban public utility sector is a basic sector that has overall and guiding impact on national economic development. The urban transport sector has been given priority for, and will continuously receive, support in the field of capital investment for the present and in the relatively longer−run period.

However, we clearly understand that we are now facing the following challenges: construction of urban transport infrastructure has lagged behind; the structure of urban land use is not rational and some land for transport purposes is being taken for other uses; the urban transport system is incomplete, the function of the road transport system needs to be improved, the structure of road transport networks and that of passenger transport are unreasonable; the funding sources for investments are not stable; there is no clear and consistent policy support for investments with high levels of benefit spillover; and urban transport management lacks coordination and the level of management is low. Urban transport, as the artery of cities, plays a role in promoting economic development and facilitating mobility. However, traffic congestion now causes over IDR 100 trillion loss each year. The “bottleneck” of urban transport has become a predominant constraint on economic and social development. The development of Indonesia’s market economy needs a healthy and well−developed urban transport system to connect production and circulation, and to establish an integrated open market. The underdevelopment of urban transport has adversely affected the establishment of the market−economy system. Often, the urban transport system offers low−level services. Especially in some of the metropolitan, like Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan and Bandung the travel duration of residents is prolonged, the operating efficiency of the road networks decreases every year, hindering effective improvement in the quality of life and environment in urban areas.

WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES
As part of serial activities in commemorating the 55th anniversary of Regional and City Planning Department in ITB, this workshop aims to promote the exchange of ideas among academicians, researchers, professionals, policy makers, representatives of business organizations and service providers and government officials that are currently involved or associated with the conduct of analyzing issues, problems and solutions for the future of urban mobility and accessibility in the cities of developing countries.

TOPICS OF DISCUSSION
• Urban Transportation Planning and Decision-making Process
• Innovations in Urban Mobility Management in Bandung Metropolitan Area
• Policy Dialogue on Cross-cutting Issues in Creating Sustainable Transportation in Greater Bandung

GOAL
This workshop aims to promote the exchange of ideas among academicians, researchers, professionals, policy makers, representatives of business organizations and service providers and government officials that are currently involved or associated with the conduct of analyzing issues, problems and solutions for the future of urban mobility and accessibility in the cities of developing countries, and, more specifically, Greater Bandung.

1. Urban Transportation Planning and Decision-making Process

This topic will be discussed by four panelists. The first two panelists, B.S. Kusbiantoro and Ofyar Z. Tamin, are expected to provide presentations on the basic concepts concerning transportation planning.
• B.S. Kusbiantoro is expected to explain the paradigm of sustainable urban transportation and how such paradigm influences the process and the content of transportation and urban development planning and development. Related institutional and managerial aspects could also be explored based on theoretical perspective.
• Ofyar Z. Tamin is expected to review the role of travel demand forecasting in transportation planning within the context of creating sustainable urban transportation in developing countries. Some evolutions of the forecasting methods could be highlighted in order to describe the progresses as well as the challenges encountered by transport planners in developing countries.

The second two panelists, Mme Meteyer-Zeldine (CEREMA) and M. Perrin (Université Lille 1), are expected to provide insights on empirical practices of transportation-related decision making process. Based on their experiences, some lessons-learned for Indonesian cities should be pointed out.
• Mme Meteyer-Zeldine is expected to focus on the role of AOT (Urban Regional Transportation Authority) in deeper connecting a cooperation with other authorities responsible for planning and urbanization. The speech could lead to highlighting important points on the institutional framework of managing transportation in metropolitan region and how to make it work.
• M. Perrin (Université Lille 1): Governance of public transportation in Région nord-Pas-de-Calais. Some lessons learned on mode of governance for the future mass public transportation in Greater Bandung, both bus- and rail-based, could be drawn.

The output of this session’s discussion would highlight some important elements to be considered by a city in order to create sustainable urban mobility, for example ideal steps in planning urban transit system, policy considerations, data building requirement as well as options of institutional framework for effective planning and decision-making process suitable for cities in developing countries.

2. Innovations in Urban Mobility Management in Greater Bandung

This session is designed as the heart of the workshop. By reflecting the discussion in the first session which covers general aspect of sustainable urban transportation, the application on Bandung Metropolitan Case will be discussed. The session will be divided into two sub-sessions.

It will begin with presentation of Bandung Metropolitan Area Transportation Masterplan by Johnny Patta as the representative of West Java Province Metropolitan Management, including:
• The concept of Greater Bandung Metropolitan Development.
• The issues of of urban transportation.
• The mode and network plan of urban transportation system in Greater Bandung.

In the second part of this session, discussion on the technological and implementation aspects of light rail system will be delivered by three panelists. Light rail system is purposively highlighted considering the recent plan of constructing monorail in Greater Bandung. Therefore, Ade Sjafruddin from ITB will firstly share about the feasibility study results of monorail development in Greater Bandung. This would explain a greater detail of monorail plan compared to Johnny Patta’s description in the previous sub-session.

Furthermore, French perspectives from two panelists will enrich the discussion and provide lessons-learned for Bandung case:
• M. Antonio (Responsable mission Tramway de l’agglomération de Brest): Different modes of transport caracteristic, advantage-disadvantage with a specific experience of Brest tramway and the interaction between transport, urbanisme and social cohession.
• M. Martell (UTC) : Modal transport competition between Jakarta and Bandung and problems related in each city

The output of this session would provide feedbacks on how to improve mass public transportation development plan, particularly monorail for Greater Bandung’s case. Some innovations both technological and non-technological to ensure the effectiveness of monorail development could be suggested and elaborated.

3. Policy Dialogue on Cross-cutting Issues in Creating Sustainable Transportation in Greater Bandung

In this last session, the format of discussion will be different from the previous two sessions. Herein, panelists are not expected to give speech individually regarding certain topic. On the other hand, panelists should respond to a list of questions that have been prepared by moderator to lead the discussion. The responses should represent their professional background, either as academician, operator/practitioner, or government.

The discussants and their point of views are:
• Harun al-Rasyid Lubis (Civil Engineering, ITB): elaborate options of fiscal support from government for public transportation system development based on international experiences.
• Rudy Hermawan Karsaman (Civil Engineering, ITB): elaborate about issues in determining fare structure in transportation sector
• Leo Haring (UITP, Light Rail Committee): elaborate dos and donts in light rail planning project
• Sukmawati Syukur and/or John Aryananda (CEO of PT Jakarta Monorail): elaborate the issues and challenges in implementing monorail development project by reflecting from Jakarta’s case
• Cecep Rukmana (Chamber of Commerce, West Java Province): elaborate the issues and challenges in implementing monorail development project by reflecting from Greater Bandung’s case
• Michel Antraigue (Advisor for Indonesia of AREP – architecture and urban development company specialized in intermodal hubs of transportation and Advisor of the French Railway Companies for Indonesia)

Questions to be further elaborated are:
• What are the main issues in planning and implementating mass rapid transit project in Indonesia?
• How prospective is light rail project in Indonesian cities?
• What kind of prerequisites needed to allow light rail project moving forward and succeed?
• How private sector can participate in solving the issues and whether such roles are applicable in the context of Indonesia, by taking Jakarta and Bandung as the examples?
• What kind of support should the government provide in such project?

The output of this roundtable discussion should suggest some main recommendations in preparing financial scheme and promoting private participation to smoothen the implementation of urban transportation projects.

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